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We only ask for your e-mail address, never share your information, and only send you the e-newsletter every month or two. Once the dealer has announced "No Spin", the ball will be removed and the spin will be considered invalid. There are different number series in roulette that have special names attached to them. For example, the gambler's fallacy indicates that a craps player should bet on eleven if an eleven has not appeared or has appeared too often in the last 20 rolls. Bet it now while the dice are in the middle. S3 vs S4, efficiency issues R2jags:

Black 14' Craps Table

Huxley Chipper Champ 2

The shooter is required to make either a pass line bet or a Don't Pass bet if he wants to shoot. On the come out roll each player may only make one bet on the Pass or Don't Pass, but may bet both if desired. The Pass Line and Don't Pass bet is optional for any player not shooting. In rare cases, some casinos require all players to make a minimum Pass Line or Don't Pass bet if they want to make any other bet , whether they are currently shooting or not.

The fundamental bet in craps is the pass line bet, which is a bet for the shooter to win. This bet must be at least the table minimum and at most the table maximum. The pass line bet is a contract bet. Once a pass line bet is made, it is always working and cannot be turned "Off", taken down, or reduced until a decision is reached — the point is made, or the shooter sevens out.

A player may increase any corresponding odds up to the table limit behind the Pass line at any time after a point is established. Players may only bet the pass line on the come out roll when no point has been established, unless the casino allows put betting where the player can bet Pass line or increase an existing Pass line bet whenever desired and may take odds immediately if the point is already on.

A don't pass bet is a bet for the shooter to lose "seven out, line away" and is almost the opposite of the pass line bet.

Like the Pass bet, this bet must be at least the table minimum and at most the table maximum. The don't pass bet is a no-contract bet. After a point is established, a player may take down or reduce a don't pass bet and any corresponding odds at any time because odds of rolling a 7 before the point is in the player's favor. Once taken down or reduced, however, the don't pass bet may not be restored or increased.

Because the shooter must have a line bet the shooter generally may not reduce a don't pass bet below the table minimum.

In Las Vegas , a majority of casinos will allow the shooter to move the bet to the pass line in lieu of taking it down, however in other areas such as Pennsylvania and Atlantic City , this is not allowed.

Even though players are allowed to remove the don't pass line bet after a point has been established, the bet cannot be turned "Off" without being removed.

If a player chooses to remove the don't pass line bet, he or she can no longer lay odds behind the don't pass line. The player can, however, still make standard lay bets on any of the point numbers 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, There are two different ways to calculate the odds and house edge of this bet. The table below gives the numbers considering that the game ends in a push when a 12 is rolled, rather than being undetermined.

Betting on don't pass is often called "playing the dark side", and it is considered by some players to be in poor taste, or even taboo, because it goes directly against conventional play, winning when most of the players lose.

If a 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, or 10 is thrown on the come-out roll i. This additional bet wins if the point is rolled again before a 7 is rolled the point is made and pays at the true odds of 2-to-1 if 4 or 10 is the point, 3-to-2 if 5 or 9 is the point, or 6-to-5 if 6 or 8 is the point. Unlike the pass line bet itself, the pass line odds bet can be turned "Off" not working , removed or reduced anytime before it loses. In Las Vegas, generally odds bets are required to be the table minimum. In Atlantic City and Pennsylvania, the combine odds and pass bet must be table minimum so players can bet the minimum single unit on odds depending on the point.

If the player requests the pass odds be not working "Off" and the shooter sevens-out or hits the point, the pass line bet will be lost or doubled and the pass odds returned.

Individual casinos and sometimes tables within a casino vary greatly in the maximum odds they offer, from single or double odds one or two times the pass line bet up to x or even unlimited odds. A variation often seen is "X Odds", where the maximum allowed odds bet depends on the point: This rule simplifies the calculation of winnings: As odds bets are paid at true odds, in contrast with the pass line which is always even money, taking odds on a minimum pass line bet lessens the house advantage compared with betting the same total amount on the pass line only.

A maximum odds bet on a minimum pass line bet often gives the lowest house edge available in any game in the casino. However, the odds bet cannot be made independently, so the house retains an edge on the pass line bet itself.

If a player is playing don't pass instead of pass, they may also lay odds by placing chips behind the don't pass line.

If a 7 comes before the point is rolled, the odds pay at true odds of 1-to-2 if 4 or 10 is the point, 2-to-3 if 5 or 9 is the point, or 5-to-6 if 6 or 8 is the point. Typically the maximum lay bet will be expressed such that a player may win up to an amount equal to the maximum odds multiple at the table. If a player lays maximum odds with a point of 4 or 10 on a table offering five-times odds, he would be able to lay a maximum of ten times the amount of his Don't Pass bet.

At 5x odds table, the maximum amount the combined bet can win will always be 6x the amount of the Don't Pass bet. Players can bet table minimum odds if desired and win less than table minimum.

Like the Don't Pass bet the odds can be removed or reduced. Unlike the don't pass bet itself, the don't pass odds can be turned "Off" not working. In Las Vegas generally odds bets are required to be the table minimum. In Atlantic City and Pennsylvania, the combine lay odds and Don't Pass bet must be table minimum so players may bet as little as the minimum two units on odds depending on the point. If the player requests the don't pass odds to be not working "Off" and the shooter hits the point or sevens-out, the don't pass bet will be lost or doubled and the don't pass odds returned.

Unlike a standard lay bet on a point, lay odds behind the Don't Pass line does not charge commission vig. A Come bet can be visualized as starting an entirely new pass line bet, unique to that player. Like the Pass Line each player may only make one Come bet per roll, this does not exclude a player from betting odds on an already established Come point.

Players may bet both the Come and Don't Come on the same roll if desired. Come bets can only be made after a point has been established since, on the come-out roll, a Come bet would be the same thing as a pass line bet.

A player making a Come bet will bet on the first point number that "comes" from the shooter's next roll, regardless of the table's round. If a 7 or 11 is rolled on the first round, it wins. If a 2, 3, or 12 is rolled, it loses.

If instead the roll is 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, or 10, the Come bet will be moved by the base dealer onto a box representing the number the shooter threw.

This number becomes the "come-bet point" and the player is allowed to take odds, just like a pass line bet. Also like a pass line bet, the come bet is a contract bet and is always working, and cannot be turned "Off", removed or reduced until it wins or loses. However, the odds taken behind a Come bet can be turned "Off" not working , removed or reduced anytime before the bet loses.

In Atlantic City and Pennsylvania, the combine odds and pass bet must be table minimum so players can bet the minimum single unit depending on the point. If the player requests the Come odds to be not working "Off" and the shooter sevens-out or hits the Come bet point, the Come bet will be lost or doubled and the Come odds returned.

If the casino allows put betting a player may increase a Come bet after a point has been established and bet larger odds behind if desired. Put betting also allows a player to bet on a Come and take odds immediately on a point number without a Come bet point being established.

The dealer will place the odds on top of the come bet, but slightly off center in order to differentiate between the original bet and the odds. The second round wins if the shooter rolls the come bet point again before a seven. Winning come bets are paid the same as winning pass line bets: If, instead, the seven is rolled before the come-bet point, the come bet and any odds bet loses.

Because of the come bet, if the shooter makes their point, a player can find themselves in the situation where they still have a come bet possibly with odds on it and the next roll is a come-out roll. In this situation, odds bets on the come wagers are usually presumed to be not working for the come-out roll. That means that if the shooter rolls a 7 on the come-out roll, any players with active come bets waiting for a come-bet point lose their initial wager but will have their odds bets returned to them.

If the come-bet point is rolled on the come-out roll, the odds do not win but the come bet does and the odds bet is returned along with the come bet and its payoff. The player can tell the dealer that they want their odds working, such that if the shooter rolls a number that matches the come point, the odds bet will win along with the come bet, and if a seven is rolled, both lose. Many players will use a come bet as "insurance" against sevening out: The risk in this strategy is the situation where the shooter does not hit a seven for several rolls, leading to multiple come bets that will be lost if the shooter eventually sevens out.

In the same way that a come bet is similar to a pass line bet, a don't come bet is similar to a don't pass bet. Like the come, the don't come can only be bet after a point has already been established as it is the same as a don't pass line bet when no point is established.

A don't come bet is played in two rounds. If a 2 or 3 is rolled in the first round, it wins. If a 7 or 11 is rolled, it loses. If, instead, the roll is 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, or 10, the don't come bet will be moved by the base dealer onto a box representing the number the shooter threw. The second round wins if the shooter rolls a seven before the don't come point.

Like the Don't Pass each player may only make one Don't Come bet per roll, this does not exclude a player from laying odds on an already established Don't Come points. Players may bet both the Don't Come and Come on the same roll if desired. The player may lay odds on a don't come bet, just like a don't pass bet; in this case, the dealer not the player places the odds bet on top of the bet in the box, because of limited space, slightly offset to signify that it is an odds bet and not part of the original don't come bet.

Lay odds behind a Don't Come are subject to the same rules as Don't Pass lay odds. Unlike a standard lay bet on a point, lay odds behind a don't come point does not charge commission vig and gives the player true odds. Like the don't pass line bet, don't come bets are no-contract, and can be removed or reduced after a don't come point has been established, but cannot be turned off "not working" without being removed.

A player may also call, "No Action" when a point is established, and the bet will not be moved to its point. This play is not to the player's advantage. If the bet is removed, the player can no longer lay odds behind the don't come point and cannot restore or increase the same don't come bet. Players must wait until next roll as long as a pass line point has been established players cannot bet don't come on come out rolls before they can make a new don't come bet.

Las Vegas casinos which allow put betting allows players to move the Don't Come directly to any Come point as a put, however this is not allowed in Atlantic City or Pennsylvania. Unlike the don't come bet itself, the don't come odds can be turned "Off" not working , removed or reduced if desired. In Las Vegas, players generally must lay at least table minimum on odds if desired and win less than table minimum, in Atlantic City and Pennsylvania players combined bet must be at least table minimum, so depending on the point number players may lay as little as 2 minimum units e.

If the player requests the don't come odds be not working "Off" and the shooter hits the don't come point or sevens-out, the don't come bet will be lost or doubled and the don't come odds returned.

Winning don't come bets are paid the same as winning don't pass bets: Unlike come bets, the odds laid behind points established by don't come bets are always working including come out rolls unless the player specifies otherwise. These are bets that may not be settled on the first roll and may need any number of subsequent rolls before an outcome is determined.

Most multi-roll bets may fall into the situation where a point is made by the shooter before the outcome of the multi-roll bet is decided. These bets are often considered "not working" on the new come-out roll until the next point is established, unless the player calls the bet as "working. Casino rules vary on this; some of these bets may not be callable, while others may be considered "working" during the come-out.

Dealers will usually announce if bets are working unless otherwise called off. If a non-working point number placed, bought or laid becomes the new point as the result of a come-out, the bet is usually refunded, or can be moved to another number for free.

Players can bet any point number 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 by placing their wager in the come area and telling the dealer how much and on what number s , "30 on the 6", "5 on the 5" or "25 on the 10". These are typically "Place Bets to Win". These are bets that the number bet on will be rolled before a 7 is rolled. These bets are considered working bets, and will continue to be paid out each time a shooter rolls the number bet.

By rules, place bets are not working on the come out roll but can be "turned on" by the player. Players may remove or reduce bet must be at least table minimum this bet anytime before it loses seven out. Place bets to win payout at slightly worse than the true odds: For the 4 and 10, it is to the player's advantage to 'buy' the bet see below.

There are also "Place Bets to Lose". Rarely casinos offer these bets. This bet is the opposite of the place bet to win and pays off if a 7 is rolled before the specific point number. The place bet to lose typically carries a lower house edge than a place bet to win. Payouts are 4—5 on points 6 or 8, 5—8 on 5 or 9, and 5—11 on 4 or In most cases, there are other methods to bet on point numbers than placing them, depending how the casino charges commissions and what bets are allowed.

See Buy, Lay, and Put bets. Buy bets are placed with the shooter betting at a specific number will come out before a player sevens out. Traditionally, the buy bet commission is paid no matter what, but in recent years a number of casinos have changed their policy to charge the commission only when the buy bet wins. Some casinos charge the commission as a one-time fee to buy the number; payouts are then always at true odds.

Players may remove or reduce this bet bet must be at least table minimum excluding vig anytime before it loses. Buy bets like place bets are not working when no point has been established unless the player specifies otherwise. The house edges stated in the table assume the commission is charged on all bets. They are reduced by at least a factor of two if commission is charged on winning bets only.

A lay bet is the opposite of a buy bet, where a player bets on a 7 to roll before the number that is laid. Players may only lay the 4, 5, 6, 8, 9 or 10 and may lay multiple numbers if desired.

Just like the buy bet lay bets pay true odds, but because the lay bet is the opposite of the buy bet, the payout is reversed. Therefore, players get 1 to 2 for the numbers 4 and 10, 2 to 3 for the numbers 5 and 9, and 5 to 6 for the numbers 6 and 8. Like the buy bet the commission is adjusted to suit the betting unit such that fraction of a dollar payouts are not needed.

Casinos may charge the vig up front thereby requiring the player to pay a vig win or lose, other casinos may only take the vig if the bet wins. Taking vig only on wins lowers house edge. Players may removed or reduce this bet bet must be at least table minimum anytime before it loses. Some casinos in Las Vegas allow players to lay table minimum plus vig if desired and win less than table minimum. Lay bet maximums are equal to the table maximum win, so if a player wishes to lay the 4 or 10, he or she may bet twice at amount of the table maximum for the win to be table maximum.

Similar to buy betting, some casinos only take commission on win reducing house edge. Unlike place and buy bets, lay bets are always working even when no point has been established. The player must specify otherwise if he or she wishes to have the bet not working. If a player is unsure of whether a bet is a single or multi-roll bet, it can be noted that all single-roll bets will be displayed on the playing surface in one color usually red , while all multi-roll bets will be displayed in a different color usually yellow.

A put bet is a bet which allows players to increase or make a Pass line bet after a point has been established after come-out roll. Players may make a put bet on the Pass line and take odds immediately or increase odds behind if a player decides to add money to an already existing Pass line bet.

Put betting also allows players to increase an existing come bet for additional odds after a come point has been established or make a new come bet and take odds immediately behind if desired without a come bet point being established. If increased or added put bets on the Pass line and Come cannot be turned "Off", removed or reduced, but odds bet behind can be turned "Off", removed or reduced. The odds bet is generally required to be the table minimum. Player cannot put bet the Don't Pass or Don't Come.

Put betting may give a larger house edge over place betting unless the casino offers high odds. Put bets are better than place bets to win when betting more than 5-times odds over the flat bet portion of the put bet.

Looking at two possible bets: The player needs to be at a table which not only allows put bets, but also high-times odds, to take this advantage. This bet can only be placed on the numbers 4, 6, 8, and In order for this bet to win, the chosen number must be rolled the "hard way" as doubles before a 7 or any other non-double combination "easy way" totaling that number is rolled.

In Las Vegas casinos, this bet is generally working, including when no point has been established, unless the player specifies otherwise. In other casinos such as those in Atlantic City , hard ways are not working when the point is off unless the player requests to have it working on the come out roll. Like single-roll bets, hard way bets can be lower than the table minimum; however, the maximum bet allowed is also lower than the table maximum. The minimum hard way bet can be a minimum one unit.

The maximum bet is based on the maximum allowed win from a single roll. Easy way is not a specific bet offered in standard casinos, but a term used to define any number combination which has two ways to roll. For example, 6—4, 4—6 would be a "10 easy". The 4, 6, 8 or 10 can be made both hard and easy ways. Betting point numbers which pays off on easy or hard rolls of that number or single-roll "hop" bets e. A player can choose either the 6 or 8 being rolled before the shooter throws a seven.

These wagers are usually avoided by experienced craps players since they pay even money 1: The bets are located in the corners behind the pass line, and bets may be placed directly by players.

In addition place bets are usually not working, except by agreement, when the shooter is "coming out" i. Single-roll proposition bets are resolved in one dice roll by the shooter. Most of these are called "Service Bets", and they are located at the center of most craps tables. Only the stickman or a dealer can place a service bet. The lowest single roll bet can be a minimum one unit bet.

Single bets are always working by default unless the player specifies otherwise. Wins if shooter rolls a 2 or The stickman places this bet on the line dividing the 2 and 12 bets. A combined bet, a player is betting half their bet on craps 2,3,12 and the other half on 11 yo. The combine payout is 3: Another method of calculating the payout is to divide the total bet in half.

The player would receive 7: If an 11 was rolled the player would receive Both methods of calculation yield the same result so either method can be used. If a player wishes to take the bet down after a win the player would receive the whole bet not half even though only one of the two bets can win per roll. One of the two bets will always lose, the other may win.

Wins if the shooter rolls a 7 with 4: This bet is also nicknamed Big Red, since the 7 on its betting space on the layout is usually large and red, and it is considered bad luck [ by whom? This is a bet that involves betting on 1 unit each for 2, 3, 11 and 12 at the same time for the next roll. The bet is actually four separate bets, and pays off depending on which number is actually rolled. The combine payout is Each individual bet has the same payout as a single bet on the specific numbers, If a player wins the bet he can take down all four bets instead of a single bet even though only one bet can win per roll.

Many players, in order to eliminate the confusion of tossing four chips to the center of the table or having change made while bets are being placed, will make a five-unit Horn High bet, which is a four-way bet with the extra unit going to one specific number. Horn bets are generally required to be in multiples of 4 or 5 with the minimum bet being 4 times the minimum unit allowed. A five-unit bet that is a combination of a horn and any-seven bet, with the idea that if a seven is rolled the bet is a push, because the money won on the seven is lost on the horn portions of the bet.

The combine odds are The minimum bet is five of the minimum units. On the Hop, Hop or Hopping: A single roll bet on any particular combination of the two dice on the next roll including combinations whose sum is 7 e.

For example, if you bet on "5 and 1" on the hop, you are betting that the next roll will have a 5 on one die and a 1 on the other die. The bet pays Hard ways hop pays The true odds are When presented, hop bets are located at the center of the craps layout with the other proposition bets.

If hop bets are not on the craps layout, they still may be bet on by players but they become the responsibility of the boxman to book the bet. Sometimes players may request to hop a whole number. In this case the money on the bet different combinations.

For example, if a player says "hop the tens" 6—4, 5—5, 4—6 the player must give the dealer an even number bet so it can be divided among the hard and easy ways. If a player wishes to "hop the sevens" there would be three different combinations and six possible ways to roll a 7 6—1, 5—2, 4—3, 3—4, 2—5, 1—6 therefore the player should bet in multiples of 3 so the bet can be divided among each combination with a This bet is a wager that one of the numbers 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, or 12 will appear on the next roll of the dice.

This bet typically pays more 2: The Field bet is a "Self-Service" Bet. Unlike the other proposition bets which are handled by the dealers or stickman, the field bet is placed directly by the player. Players identify their Field bets by placing them in the Field area directly in front of them or as close to their position as possible.

A registered trademark owned by SHFL entertainment. As different individual points are made by the shooter, they will be marked on the craps layout with a fire symbol. The first three points will not pay out on the fire bet, but the fourth, fifth and sixth will pay out at increasing odds. The fourth point pays at to-1, the fifth point pays at to-1 and the 6th point pays at to Note that the points must all be different numbers for them to count towards the fire bet.

For example, a shooter who successfully hits a point of 10 twice will only garner credit for the first one on the fire bet. Players must hit the established point in order for it to count toward the fire bet. The payout is determine by the number of points which have been established and hit after the shooter sevens out. Is a registered trademark owned by Galaxy Gaming.

These bets pay for-1, for a house advantage of 7. This pays for-1, for a house edge of 7. For all three wagers, the order in which the numbers are hit does not matter. Whenever a seven is hit, including on the come out roll, all bonus bets lose, the bonus board is reset, and new bonus bets may be placed.

A player may wish to make multiple different bets. If one of the bets win the dealer may automatically replenish the losing bet with profits from the winning bet. In this example, if the shooter rolls a hard 8 pays 9: If the player does not want the bet replenished, he or she should request any or all bets be taken down. A working bet is a live bet. Bets may also be on the board, but not in play and therefore not working.

Pass line and come bets are always working meaning the chips are in play and the player is therefore wagering live money. Other bets may be working or not working depending whether a point has been established or player's choice.

Place and buy bets are working by default when a point is established and not working when the point is off unless the player specifies otherwise. Lay bets are always working even if a point has not been established unless the player requests otherwise. At any time, a player may wish to take any bet or bets out of play. The dealer will put an "Off" button on the player's specific bet or bets; this allows the player to keep his chips on the board without a live wager.

For example, if a player decides not to wager a place bet mid-roll but wishes to keep the chips on the number, he or she may request the bet be "not working" or "Off". The chips remain on the table, but the player cannot win from or lose chips which are not working.

The opposite is also allowed. By default place and buy bets are not working without an established point; a player may wish to wager chips before a point has been established. In this case, the player would request the bet be working in which the dealer will place an "On" button on the specified chips. The probability of dice combinations determine the odds of the payout. The following chart shows the dice combinations needed to roll each number.

The two and twelve are the hardest to roll since only one combination of dice is possible. The game of craps is built around the dice roll of seven, since it is the most easily rolled dice combination.

The expected value of all bets is usually negative, such that the average player will always lose money. This is because the house always sets the paid odds to below the actual odds. However, this "free odds" bet cannot be made independently, so the expected value of the entire bet, including odds, is still negative. Since there is no correlation between die rolls, there is normally no possible long-term winning strategy in craps. There are occasional promotional variants that provide either no house edge or even a player edge.

One example is a field bet that pays 3: Overall, given the 5: This is sometimes seen at casinos running limited-time incentives, in jurisdictions or gaming houses that require the game to be fair, or in layouts for use in informal settings using play money. No casino currently runs a craps table with a bet that yields a player edge full-time.

Maximizing the size of the odds bet in relation to the line bet will reduce, but never eliminate the house edge, and will increase variance. Most casinos have a limit on how large the odds bet can be in relation to the line bet, with single, double, and five times odds common. Some casinos offer 3—4—5 odds, referring to the maximum multiple of the line bet a player can place in odds for the points of 4 and 10, 5 and 9, and 6 and 8, respectively.

During promotional periods, a casino may even offer x odds bets, which reduces the house edge to almost nothing, but dramatically increases variance, as the player will be betting in large betting units. Since several of the multiple roll bets pay off in ratios of fractions on the dollar, it is important that the player bets in multiples that will allow a correct payoff in complete dollars.

Normally, payoffs will be rounded down to the nearest dollar, resulting in a higher house advantage. The American game was developed in the gambling dens across the new territories where makeshift games had been set up, whereas the French game evolved with style and leisure in Monte Carlo.

During the first part of the 20th century, the only casino towns of note were Monte Carlo with the traditional single zero French wheel, and Las Vegas with the American double zero wheel. In the s, casinos began to flourish around the world. By there were several hundred casinos worldwide offering roulette games. The double zero wheel is found in the U. The sum of all the numbers on the roulette wheel from 0 to 36 is , which is the " Number of the Beast ". Roulette players have a variety of betting options.

Placing inside bets is either selecting the exact number of the pocket the ball will land in, or a small range of pockets based on their proximity on the layout. Players wishing to bet on the 'outside' will select bets on larger positional groupings of pockets, the pocket color, or whether the winning number is odd or even.

The roulette table usually imposes minimum and maximum bets, and these rules usually apply separately for all of a player's inside and outside bets for each spin. For inside bets at roulette tables, some casinos may use separate roulette table chips of various colors to distinguish players at the table. Players can continue to place bets as the ball spins around the wheel until the dealer announces no more bets or rien ne va plus.

When a winning number and color is determined by the roulette wheel, the dealer will place a marker, also known as a dolly, on that winning number on the roulette table layout. When the dolly is on the table, no players may place bets, collect bets, or remove any bets from the table. The dealer will then sweep away all other losing bets either by hand or rake, and determine all of the payouts to the remaining inside and outside winning bets.

When the dealer is finished making payouts, the marker is removed from the board where players collect their winnings and make new bets. The winning chips remain on the board. In , California legalized a form of roulette known as California Roulette. In number ranges from 1 to 10 and 19 to 28, odd numbers are red and even are black. In ranges from 11 to 18 and 29 to 36, odd numbers are black and even are red. There is a green pocket numbered 0 zero.

In American roulette, there is a second green pocket marked Pocket number order on the roulette wheel adheres to the following clockwise sequence in most casinos: The cloth-covered betting area on a roulette table is known as the layout.

The layout is either single-zero or double-zero. The European-style layout has a single zero, and the American style layout is usually a double-zero. The American-style roulette table with a wheel at one end is now used in most casinos.

The French style table with a wheel in the centre and a layout on either side is rarely found outside of Monte Carlo. Outside bets typically have smaller payouts with better odds at winning. Except as noted, all of these bets lose if a zero comes up. The payout except for the special case of Top line bets , for American and European roulette, can be calculated as.

The initial bet is returned in addition to the mentioned payout. It can be easily demonstrated that this payout formula would lead to a zero expected value of profit if there were only 36 numbers. Having 37 or 38 numbers gives the casino its edge. Note also that 0 and 00 are not odd or even, or high or low.

En prison rules, when used, reduce the house advantage. The house average or house edge or house advantage also called the expected value is the amount the player loses relative for any bet made, on average. The expected value is:. The presence of the green squares on the roulette wheel and on the table is technically the only house edge. Outside bets will always lose when a single or double zero comes up.

The only exceptions are the five numbers bet where the house edge is considerably higher 7. This is commonly called the "la partage" rule, and it is considered being the main difference of European and French roulette.

There is also modification of this rule, which is called " en prison " rule. These rules cut the house edge into half 1. The house edge should not be confused with the "hold". The hold is the average percentage of the money originally brought to the table that the player loses before he leaves—the actual "win" amount for the casino.

This reflects the fact that the player is churning the same money over and over again. In the early frontier gambling saloons, the house would set the odds on roulette tables at 27 for 1. Today most casino odds are set by law, and they have to be either 34 to 1 or 35 to 1. As an example, we can examine the European roulette model, that is, roulette with only one zero. The rules of European roulette have 10 types of bets.

First we can examine the 'Straight Up' bet. For similar reasons it is simple to see that the profitability is also equal for all remaining types of bets. In reality this means that, the more bets a player makes, the more he is going to lose independent of the strategies combinations of bet types or size of bets that he employs:. Here, the profit margin for the roulette owner is equal to approximately 2.

Nevertheless, several roulette strategy systems have been developed despite the losing odds. These systems can not change the odds of the game in favor of the player. Although most often named "call bets" technically these bets are more accurately referred to as "announced bets".

The legal distinction between a "call bet" and an "announced bet" is that a "call bet" is a bet called by the player without him placing any money on the table to cover the cost of the bet. In many jurisdictions most notably the United Kingdom this is considered gambling on credit and is illegal in some jurisdictions around the world. An "announced bet" is a bet called by the player for which he immediately places enough money to cover the amount of the bet on the table, prior to the outcome of the spin or hand in progress being known.

There are different number series in roulette that have special names attached to them. Most commonly these bets are known as "the French bets" and each covers a section of the wheel. For the sake of accuracy, zero spiel, although explained below, is not a French bet, it is more accurately "the German bet".

Players at a table may bet a set amount per series or multiples of that amount. The series are based on the way certain numbers lie next to each other on the roulette wheel. Not all casinos offer these bets, and some may offer additional bets or variations on these.

The series is on a single-zero wheel. Nine chips or multiples thereof are bet. Two chips are placed on the trio; one on the split; one on ; one on ; one on ; two on the corner; and one on Zero game, also known as zero spiel Spiel is German for game or play , is the name for the numbers closest to zero. All numbers in the zero game are included in the voisins, but are placed differently. The numbers bet on are The bet consists of four chips or multiples thereof.

Three chips are bet on splits and one chip straight-up: This type of bet is popular in Germany and many European casinos. It is also offered as a 5-chip bet in many Eastern European casinos. As a 5-chip bet, it is known as "zero spiel naca" and includes, in addition to the chips placed as noted above, a straight-up on number This is the name for the 12 numbers that lie on the opposite side of the wheel between 27 and 33, including 27 and 33 themselves.

On a single-zero wheel, the series is Very popular in British casinos, tiers bets outnumber voisins and orphelins bets by a massive margin. Six chips or multiples thereof are bet. One chip is placed on each of the following splits: The tiers bet is also called the "small series" and in some casinos most notably in South Africa "series ". A variant known as "tiers " has an additional chip placed straight up on 5, 8, 10 and 11; and so is a piece bet.

In some places the variant is called "gioco Ferrari" with a straight up on 8, 11, 23 and 30; the bet is marked with a red G on the racetrack. These numbers make up the two slices of the wheel outside the tiers and voisins. They contain a total of 8 numbers, comprising and Five chips or multiples thereof are bet on four splits and a straight-up: A number may be backed along with the two numbers on the either side of it in a 5-chip bet. For example, "0 and the neighbors" is a 5-chip bet with one piece straight-up on 3, 26, 0, 32 and Neighbors bets are often put on in combinations, for example "1, 9, 14 and the neighbors" is a chip bet covering 18, 22, 33, 16 with one chip; 9, 31, 20, 1 with two chips and 14 with three chips.

Any of the above bets may be combined, e. Final 4, for example, is a 4-chip bet and consists of one chip placed on each of the numbers ending in 4, that is 4, 14, 24 and Final 7 is a 3-chip bet, one chip each on 7, 17 and Final bets from final 0 zero to final 6 cost four chips. Final bets 7, 8 and 9 cost three chips. Some casinos also offer split-final bets, for example final would be a 4-chip bet, one chip each on the splits , , and one on A complete bet places all of the inside bets on a certain number.

Full complete bets are most often bet by high rollers as maximum bets. The maximum amount allowed to be wagered on a single bet in European roulette is based on a progressive betting model.

For instance, if a patron wished to place a full complete bet on 17, the player would call "17 to the maximum".

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