Mermaid Pants

I'm gonna clobber you two! Bacteria live everywhere we have ever looked on Earth — in the hottest, coldest, most acidic, basic, and radioactive places. This fact is obfuscated by Government Reporting using revised methods of calculating Economic Data. This spice can be used as an alternative to traditional food preservatives. During the initial kitchen scene in the Krusty Krab, the grill is shown facing the opposite side of the window. She wrote, "Now one forgets what it's all about in the clutter of unimportant details that impedes its pace, and the pompous manner of its telling.

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Bush, former President George W. Former first lady Barbara Bush greets her husband and former U. Bush with a kiss after his successful skydive down to St. Former President George H. The Braves won FOX 5 live newscasts and replays: Click here to watch! Officials looking to identify young girl, locate family found in Loudoun County. FOX 5 Live Archive. Trying to hoard Gold or Silver without having the hundred thousand dollars in preps in place first, will be a death sentence. When the SHTF, you will want to stay put for the first 6 months, and not wander far from your home or retreat.

Let everybody else out there try to barter or buy supplies with silver and gold and watch them get slaughtered. Now if you have Millions of dollars and need a safe haven to safeguard your massive assets, sure go ahead and buy some gold or silver, and get that into your physical possession, not paper, but forget this gold and silver pipe dream. The new Money or monetary exchange will be bartered in Guns, Bullets, water, food and fuels.

Something people can physically use. Tasmania has fertile soil, low population density, and very few guns….. Yeah, see how long the white dude with all the stuff lasts in a 3rd world country without the rule of law.

Ahh, Tasmania is a state in Australia Einstein. It is an island located south of Melbourne. No hand guns, no violent gangs, low population density, lots of agriculture plus old growth woods.

Plenty of hydroelectric power. Ocean all around for fishing. Lots of inland lakes for fishing as well. Climate similar to the US Midwest. You are correct during the Mad Max phase, brass and lead. Now I may not make it to that point, but maybe I will or someone I love will.

Disclaimer on Package for Tails reads: NOT to be used to suspend self from Tall tree limbs! Loooky Der dems new Tails! I Jez gotz ta getz me one Oh dem new monky Tails! Deys lookinz so Real and all that shieeeeeiiiitttt!!! Now Gangbangers can Hide Up in Trees from cops views, and remain all cozy Warm during harsh detroit winters! Like when the price is definitely feasible??

After a collapse, that can of corn will NOT be. Perhaps if you read and research a few Links I and a few others like JQP has posted on the issues we write about, you may find yourself Re thinking things a bit eh.

Its the method we all used to awaken to these issues we post of usually…IE Various zio and jewdeo kommie issues etc as I assume Thats what you refer to on disagreeing with me…Everybody disagrees…At…First!

Then I figured just maybe alot of what we all was told or taught by Our elders, of wwii era, school history text books, major tv news and newspapers etc…Maybe some of That stuff was Lies or propagandfas also eh? I had Hit that proverbial Jackpot of truth once I did much reading online sources…but Make Certain that info online has foot notes that You can also go read to verify that info as factual etc…Like Peer reviewed papers….

Codoh site is one…Michael Hoffman is another, Hoffmans writting is Superb as hes a true christian man, his foot noted documented research is next to none others.

When they finally find it thru exhaustive research they then write articles or books on these findings.. I hope your son realizes that some preppers are also EX. Im sure he was joking with you, otherwise he would be underestamating his prey. Actually I have invested in quail and preps for myself. I want to stay away from people. And, no, I will NOT be bartering from my home either. All sounds nice, but do that and you become a big target that cant move.

Easy to put down a gang of outlaws with small arms, but how do you stop one tank from rolling right through? The admission follows over a year of denials, which were originally sparked by a leaked copy of the email from an anonymous whistleblower.

Any of the financial types say to spread your investments around and dont invest heavy in one area. People have been told or taught to save their money. Thats not true anymore. There aint any return on the dollar now.

Even food makes a better investment. Hmmm the collapse of the fiat fake money game and the birth of another fiat bullshit enslavement scam. Bunch of paper slave zombies make me sick. But as long as everyone treats it as valuable money were all screwed.

Or the walmart zombie crowd that eats at McDonalds after a hard day of buying chinese crap then take theyre 14 medications for all the crap theyre lifestyle has given them that when you stand back and look at are just a bunch of resource consuming worthless idiots? Or the flouridated brainwashed groupthinking retards that are all caught up in the right left paradigm spouting the latest bullshit they heard on hannity? That american way of life? Looking around me I think getting rid of this way of life looks pretty good as long as it can be replaced by intelligent independent self reliant and vigilant people with enough brains to never let psycopaths run theyre lives.

Thank God for Alternative Media. There is no difference between the MSM and Pravda or other rags that belong to totalitarian regimes. Fortunately for us, AM, will hopefully provide timely and essential news and information going forward as events unfold.

Unfortunately, we are too dependent on the internet, but, lets keep using the available communication system as long as we can. Thanks MAC for keeping this up and running. They want you to buy metal to support their balance sheet, and they want you to give them those awful USD in exchange for their monthly newsletter subscription.

Better yet, buy into their real estate development in Argentina which you will NEVER be able to get to if the shit really hits the fan. I sought the Lord and he heard me and delivered me from all my fear. And why would you go to a country like Argentina whose currency has already collapsed and is already facing hyperinflation?

Armageddon does not start this year. Invest in gold, speculate with silver, and hoard your lead. Silver and gold is a good way to preserve a portion of your wealth through the Changes that are coming.

I am not suggesting anyone move to Argentina. Casey has a real estate project there that he bills as a safe haven. Your cash dollars would be king in Argentina and so would you! But know one should think that they can get there once SHTF starts.

Im starting to think maybe i should start promoting the islands as a safe haven for preppers, Think about it, if thousands move to say Maui, we can change the political landscape here, we have excellent weather, good resources for being self sufficient, yes land taxes are a bit higher, as are other regulations, hence the drive to alter politics here, its a small enough area it could really work, and yet not be in a freezing place like the North western CONUS, if there is any sort of collapse its way more likely to work out ok here than anywhere in the lower 48, far fewer people here and there are resources, Have just been thinking about this lately, Gotta figure out how to network better i guess.

Not what I asked. My comment was just referring to d. It was a question meant only to get d. If you really want to know what is going on in the world from eyewitnesses on the ground, you must have a Ham radio. SIX — the older tube types are the best if you can find one , but most of the time they go for more than a digital unit. On the Way to Kalif from JY newyork it stops off and is included in every newspaper jews owned across the entire usa nation of aprox papers….

Soon if trend continues zionists talmudics will reach their main Goal of Replace Christs death as Main Central Point of ALL recorded history, with Their main event called the Holyhoax as central point all history revolves around…Calanders will then read dats as…. PC correctness and them as the main source of worlds Only victims that ever matter is how they will acheieve it all…So far its close to a done deal eh! In fact many of us welcome the revaluation!

And very likely stocked up Food. They will call it hoarded. You Can bet a bundle every merchant Will Obey whatever sales laws are passed.. They may disagree on that law but they Will Obey it to a T. One simple such fed law would make gold ownership as risky as heroin or kelos of coke is today.. Brought to you by the same crooks who pumped 5 times the liquidity into its market as The Fed. Yes, he is one of insider of New World Order. That is why his bet for economic downturn is critical. Well if JustMe things that there will be a ban on owning gold, and Rodster things that the Yuan will be the new currency, then maybe we should invest in the Yuan instead of gold.

That is those who have any money left to invest. For Chinese and others in Asia it would be the Yuan. For Europeans it would be the Swiss Franc. Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Greeks should just bend over and grab their ass and make sure it is still there. You are right about that Chinese liquidity, but as I was thinking about that very thing as I was driving down Scottsdale Road today, I was wondering what the liquidity per capital ratio might be; and then how that might compare to other nations.

Enough to give loans to multinational corporations, boost the market a bit, and provide for Wall Street Bonuses. The intent is to protect the Member Banks and maybe, just maybe, keep the economy afloat.

A financial meltdown the likes of which the world has never seen is inevitable and the consequences will be catastrophic — there wont be a corner of the globe that wont be effected. Start using a local currency, like they did in Ithaca, N. I have a little paper I got years ago— printed it from Re-insurance magazine, back in Run-away means it takes a life of its on; we no longer have the means to stop it. Now, I realize what that little paper meant.

They knew- back when Bush was president- what we were about to face and they did nothing to stop it. It also explains why they stole the presidency from Gore, who wanted to stop GW. They were going to make damn sure no one touched their billion dollars per day in profits! Global warming or no GW! Presidents and congressmen are just hand-maidens or puppets…step out of line and you get what JFK got.

Big Banks, heads of big Corporations, Fossil Fuel Industry, the Fed, Rockerfeller— they are all members fo a maffia elite group and belong to certain clandestine organizations— the Trilateral Commission, Counsel on Foreign Affairs, and others. And every big whig at the top, Republican or Democrat, is a member— a gang member— of this corrupt maffia elite group.

Hillary Clinton fondly mentioned it; Cheney was head of one of the groups at one time. We vote one of two of their members. A guy with a case of beans and some MREs will be sure to score. If anyone is still trying to figure out what the government has been preparing for, this would be the answer.

The same answer from 5 years ago. People think these criminals have things under control, HA! You forget about the Asian Mafia and Russian Mafia.

There was a brief time when all 3 gangs were cooperating for the mutual benefit of their respective gang affiliation. Now, however, the Western Mafia is in a turf war with the other 2 that have allied with each other while it remains convenient to do so.

Nobody knows when, but you can bet your last assets, this shit ends in war. A real big ass war too. Keep dreaming if you think otherwise. LoL, my Freudian slip is showing. He who owns the gold, rules. But the case has been made that there may even be more important forms of PMs that will increase in value and practicality with time.

Hyperinflation is what amateur economists say. Yeah well… Further collapse in value — yes. Digital currencies — yes. The majority of folks here believe in hyperinflation so much that it has become a religion with them.

They do not understand that leverage cuts both ways and that trillions of dollars in value have been destroyed by the real estate crash and foreclosures. Those trillions of dollars lost in equity value represent real dollars, that might have made their way into the economy.

They do not recognize that a market collapse or even a collapse of the economy, does not equal a dollar collapse. These are three different things. This is the vicious spiral that the FED has tried to manage while protecting the balance sheets of its Member Banks.

The Second Leg Down has begun. The consumer is DOA. The consumer is out of excess dollars. The evisceration of the Middle Class is complete. Without excess cash in the hands of the consumer there is no hyperinflation.

The money that was created by fractional reserve banking disappears the same way it appeared. The federal government is running trillion dollar deficits. The Fed is also propping up the banks by buying the most underwater mortgages that the big banks can unload. The Fed will never sell those without huge losses. Of course it can. Its very likely that we will experience Inflation and Deflation at the same time.

As many factors including income and jobs continue to dry up and go away necessities food etc. Things like cars, big screen tvs etc. Kiss the American Dream goodbye! Free Trade has real costs. Engage your employees or be impoverished and enslaved by them one Free Trade Agreement at a time! I think we have a bigger chance of ending up with a universal electronic currency than the chance of hyper inflation,,,, We will definitely have inflation of some commodities or stuff like utilities or fuel, stagflation and manipulation of other costs or commodites, People just dont have money, The gov wants total control, Hence a drive for electronic currency.

As this increases then Unemployment in these Discretionary sectors will grow unabated. Specifically even more Specialty Retail Stores will layoff employees and close their doors.

This feeds into a Deflationary Spiral of the Discretionary Sector. Thus it is a Stagflationary environment. We are currently in a Stagflation. This fact is obfuscated by Government Reporting using revised methods of calculating Economic Data. But it is even worse.

Here is a small anecdotal example for you to consider. I went to the Grocery yesterday and bought some String Cheese Sticks. They sold at the same Price of 33 cents per stick. However they used to weigh One Ounce. Now they weigh 0. I usually eat out and rarely shop. I bought other Groceries. When I asked the Cashier if the Club Card had worked she made sure that it had. You could see the worry and concern in her face. Her body language spoke volumes. Americans are not only broke but they are in debt.

They do not have the capacity to set off the panic. The Emerging Economies will play the role of the Weimar German Republic peasants and spark a Hyperinflationary Inferno in the United States in a magnitude not ever seen before. The American consumer is broke. Employment in non essential sectors has declined if not vanished. But it is Moot when considering the cause of the Hyperinflationary Inferno.. You can deny that all that you want. I really do not care if you do.

Your denial will not serve you well. A Hyperinflationary Inferno will only serve to guarantee that outcome as the American is already broke.

Small bankers are being eliminated there. The ECB is the European answer to the FED but without sovereign control, power, authority, and most important the mechanisms to facilitate an orderly economic system. Chaos is coming for much of the third world, and parts of Europe unless the EU members surrender their financial sovereignty to a single political entity. They have no choice. The GB control the world reserve currency, and that world currency, via the generosity of the American taxpayer, has supported the development of the entire world.

That development represents the wealth of the PTB and Uber Rich who have enriched themselves through that system. On the contrary, they are consolidating both.

Russia cannot compete except with nuclear weapons. China has been made a full partner with the GB and given hegemony over Asia. The resources that China needs are in Siberia. Nothing to support or explain it. No basis in fact. That is current reality and that is not going to change unless the American people engage their employees.

Food prices will continue to rise with Climate Change which is real but this will spark urban farming which is more energy efficient, productive, and healthier. Those with cash will be king, especially at ebay, craigs list, garage sales, and going out of business sales. Solutions — Become your own central bank — cash,metals, etc. Become a general store — have things that others will need. Food, candy, liquor, cigs. Water supply — filters, distillers, storage buy water at the grocery store by the gallon and save the containers, cheaper too.

The middle class has felt all of this the most. The Gimme Dats and the elite get what they want basically handed to them. The only issue is how bad it will be. Or somewhere in between? We know the Petrodollar system will die. There are more dollars held outside the US than inside. Governments that used to stockpile dollars in order to pay for oil will dump them.

Individual investors outside the country will dump them too. The velocity of the dollar will skyrocket. Government at levels will go bankrupt. Simply burying those monies in bonds provides no velocity, simple bubble inflation of the bond market. Will that bubble ever burst? Where will the money go? Way I see it, the only winner here is the rich. The rich can win if they put their money in the right places. A lot of people still have a lot of money in the stock market to be lost when it crashes.

Or they have it in banks for them to steal. None of it in physical gold and silver. The 30 year bull market for bonds may be over for awhile, and that money goes to cash looking for opportunities, the stock market, and other asset classes.

Additionally, dollars in emerging markets which are in turmoil, flow back to the bond market with rising interest rates and to the stock market. Demonic genius to be sure. If the outflow into the rest of the economy were to exceed the inflow into bonds, would that create currency velocity? Right on Barn Cat. My first job in the mid 70s was working in a hardware store.

My only responsibility was to raise prices on items. One day I was marking a box of iron pipe tees. I missed one and the owner found it. I was nearly fired. This time inflation will be very specific targeting food and fuel. Stock up on things you need everyday. Went to hardware store yesterday to stock up on Maglite bulbs. Clerk was raising the price on those exact bulbs as I walked up.

She hand marked my bulbs and said to tell the cashier 2. Yea, no inflation here! I have been to Hell. It looks a lot like NYC. At night the lights of the myriad souls look beautiful in the dark. During the Day, with the crystal white light of the Son, you can see the filth, garbage, and vermin. BarnCat I think your right, but your numbers are vague.

I personally hope it happens in winter. MY kids are hungry.. In economics, hyperinflation occurs when a country experiences very high and usually accelerating rates of monetary and price inflation, causing the population to minimize their holdings of money. Under such conditions, the general price level within an economy increases rapidly as the official currency quickly loses real value. Unlike regular inflation, where the process of rising prices is protracted and not generally noticeable except by studying past market prices, hyperinflation sees a rapid and continuing increase in prices and in the supply of money,[2] and the cost of goods.

Hyperinflation is often associated with wars, their aftermath, sociopolitical upheavals, or other crises that make it difficult for the government to tax the population, as a sudden and sharp decrease in tax revenue coupled with a strong effort to maintain the status quo can be a direct trigger of hyperinflation.

In , Phillip Cagan wrote The Monetary Dynamics of Hyperinflation, generally regarded as the first serious study of hyperinflation and its effects. Instead, it lists factors that indicate the existence of hyperinflation: Amounts of local currency held are immediately invested to maintain purchasing power The general population regards monetary amounts not in terms of the local currency but in terms of a relatively stable foreign currency. Money Supply[edit] This theory claims that hyperinflation occurs when there is a continuing and often accelerating rapid increase in the amount of money that is not supported by a corresponding growth in the output of goods and services.

The price increases that result from the rapid money creation creates a vicious circle, requiring ever growing amounts of new money creation to fund government activities. Hence both monetary inflation and price inflation proceed at a rapid pace.

Such rapidly increasing prices cause widespread unwillingness of the local population to hold the local currency as it rapidly loses its buying power. Instead they quickly spend any money they receive, which increases the velocity of money flow; this in turn causes further acceleration in prices.

Very high inflation rates can result in a loss of confidence in the currency, similar to a bank run. Usually, the excessive money supply growth results from the government being either unable or unwilling to fully finance the government budget through taxation or borrowing, and instead it finances the government budget deficit through the printing of money.

Inflation is effectively a regressive tax on the users of money,[10] but less overt than levied taxes and is therefore harder to understand by ordinary citizens. Inflation can obscure quantitative assessments of the true cost of living, as published price indices only look at data in retrospect, so may increase only months later. Monetary inflation can become hyperinflation if monetary authorities fail to fund increasing government expenses from taxes, government debt, cost cutting, or by other means, because either during the time between recording or levying taxable transactions and collecting the taxes due, the value of the taxes collected falls in real value to a small fraction of the original taxes receivable; or government debt issues fail to find buyers except at very deep discounts; or a combination of the above.

Theories of hyperinflation generally look for a relationship between seigniorage and the inflation tax. Thus when fiat money is printed, government obligations that are not denominated in money increase in cost by more than the value of the money created. From this, it might be wondered why any rational government would engage in actions that cause or continue hyperinflation.

One reason for such actions is that often the alternative to hyperinflation is either depression or military defeat. The root cause is a matter of more dispute. In both classical economics and monetarism, it is always the result of the monetary authority irresponsibly borrowing money to pay all its expenses. These models focus on the unrestrained seigniorage of the monetary authority, and the gains from the inflation tax.

The price of gold in Germany, 1 January — 30 November Note that the vertical scale is logarithmic. In neo-classical economic theory, hyperinflation is rooted in a deterioration of the monetary base, that is the confidence that there is a store of value which the currency will be able to command later.

In this model, the perceived risk of holding currency rises dramatically, and sellers demand increasingly high premiums to accept the currency.

This in turn leads to a greater fear that the currency will collapse, causing even higher premiums. One example of this is during periods of warfare, civil war, or intense internal conflict of other kinds: Expenses cannot be cut significantly since the main outlay is armaments. Further, a civil war may make it difficult to raise taxes or to collect existing taxes. While in peacetime the deficit is financed by selling bonds, during a war it is typically difficult and expensive to borrow, especially if the war is going poorly for the government in question.

The hyperinflation under the Chinese Nationalists from to is a classic example of a government printing money to pay civil war costs. By the end, currency was flown in over the Himalayas, and then old currency was flown out to be destroyed. Hyperinflation is regarded as a complex phenomenon and one explanation may not be applicable to all cases. However, in both of these models, whether loss of confidence comes first, or central bank seigniorage, the other phase is ignited.

The transformation of an inflationary development into the hyperinflation has to be identified as a very complex phenomenon, which could be a further advanced research avenue of the complexity economics in conjunction with research areas like mass hysteria, bandwagon effect, social brain and mirror neurons.

Economists see both a rapid increase in the money supply and an increase in the velocity of money if the monetary inflating is not stopped. Either one, or both of these together are the root causes of inflation and hyperinflation. In either model, the second effect then follows from the first — either too little confidence forcing an increase in the money supply, or too much money destroying confidence. In the confidence model, some event, or series of events, such as defeats in battle, or a run on stocks of the specie which back a currency, removes the belief that the authority issuing the money will remain solvent — whether a bank or a government.

Because people do not want to hold notes which may become valueless, they want to spend them. Sellers, realizing that there is a higher risk for the currency, demand a greater and greater premium over the original value. Under this model, the method of ending hyperinflation is to change the backing of the currency, often by issuing a completely new one.

In this view, the increase in the circulating medium is the result of the government attempting to buy time without coming to terms with the root cause of the lack of confidence itself.

In the monetary model, hyperinflation is a positive feedback cycle of rapid monetary expansion. It has the same cause as all other inflation: The issuer must then accelerate its expansion to cover these prices, which pushes the currency value down even faster than before. Unfortunately, the end of expansion can cause a severe financial shock to those using the currency as expectations are suddenly adjusted.

This policy, combined with reductions of pensions, wages, and government outlays, formed part of the Washington consensus of the s. Whatever the cause, hyperinflation involves both the supply and velocity of money. Which comes first is a matter of debate, and there may be no universal story that applies to all cases.

But once the hyperinflation is established, the pattern of increasing the money stock, by whichever agencies are allowed to do so, is universal. Because this practice increases the supply of currency without any matching increase in demand for it, the price of the currency, that is the exchange rate, naturally falls relative to other currencies. Inflation becomes hyperinflation when the increase in money supply turns specific areas of pricing power into a general frenzy of spending quickly before money becomes worthless.

The purchasing power of the currency drops so rapidly that holding cash for even a day is an unacceptable loss of purchasing power. As a result, no one holds currency, which increases the velocity of money, and worsens the crisis. Because rapidly rising prices undermine the role of money as a store of value, people try to spend it on real goods or services as quickly as possible. Thus, the monetary model predicts that the velocity of money will increase as a result of an excessive increase in the money supply.

At the point when money velocity and prices rapidly accelerate in a vicious circle, hyperinflation is out of control, because ordinary policy mechanisms, such as increasing reserve requirements, raising interest rates, or cutting government spending will be ineffective and be responded to by shifting away from the rapidly devalued money and towards other means of exchange. During a period of hyperinflation, bank runs, loans for hour periods, switching to alternate currencies, the return to use of gold or silver or even barter become common.

Many of the people who hoard gold today expect hyperinflation, and are hedging against it by holding specie. This is sometimes met with capital controls, an idea which has swung from standard, to anathema, and back into semi-respectability. This is also part of the vicious circle of hyperinflation. Once the vicious circle of hyperinflation has been ignited, dramatic policy means are almost always required.

Simply raising interest rates is insufficient. The government raised the price of gasoline, which it had been selling at a huge loss to quiet popular discontent, and the hyperinflation came to a halt almost immediately, since it was able to bring in hard currency by selling its oil abroad. The crisis of confidence ended, and people returned deposits to banks. The German hyperinflation November was ended by producing a currency based on assets loaned against by banks, called the Rentenmark.

Hyperinflation often ends when a civil conflict ends with one side winning. Although wage and price controls are sometimes used to control or prevent inflation, no episode of hyperinflation has been ended by the use of price controls alone, because price controls that force merchants to sell at prices far below their restocking costs result in shortages that cause prices to rise still further.

Hyperinflation effectively wipes out the purchasing power of private and public savings, distorts the economy in favor of the hoarding of real assets, causes the monetary base, whether specie or hard currency, to flee the country, and makes the afflicted area anathema to investment. Enactment of price controls to prevent discounting the value of paper money relative to gold, silver, hard currency, or commodities, fail to force acceptance of a paper money which lacks intrinsic value.

If the entity responsible for printing a currency promotes excessive money printing, with other factors contributing a reinforcing effect, hyperinflation usually continues. Hyperinflation is generally associated with paper money, which can easily be used to increase the money supply: Much attention on hyperinflation centers on the effect on savers whose investment becomes worthless.

Academic economists seem not to have devoted much study on the positive effect on debtors. By contrast, incurring large or long-term debts though sometimes unavoidable is viewed as often resulting from irresponsibility or self-indulgence. In interwar Germany, for example, much private and corporate debt was effectively wiped out; certainly for those holding fixed interest rate loans. Aftermath[edit] Hyperinflation is ended with drastic remedies, such as imposing the shock therapy of slashing government expenditures or altering the currency basis.

One form this may take is dollarization, the use of a foreign currency not necessarily the U. Hyperinflation has always been a traumatic experience for the area which suffers it, and the next policy regime almost always enacts policies to prevent its recurrence.

Often this means making the central bank very aggressive about maintaining price stability, as was the case with the German Bundesbank or moving to some hard basis of currency such as a currency board. Many governments have enacted extremely stiff wage and price controls in the wake of hyperinflation but this does not prevent further inflating of the money supply by its central bank, and always leads to widespread shortages of consumer goods if the controls are rigidly enforced.

In countries experiencing hyperinflation, the central bank often prints money in larger and larger denominations as the smaller denomination notes become worthless. This can result in the production of some interesting banknotes, including those denominated in amounts of 1,,, or more. By late , the Weimar Republic of Germany was issuing two-trillion Mark banknotes and postage stamps with a face value of fifty billion Mark. One of the firms printing these notes submitted an invoice for the work to the Reichsbank for 32,,,,,, There was even a banknote worth 10 times more, i.

This makes the ,,,, Zimbabwean dollar banknotes the note with the greatest number of zeros shown. While this does not lessen the actual value of a currency, it is called redenomination or revaluation and also happens over time in countries with standard inflation levels. During hyperinflation, currency inflation happens so quickly that bills reach large numbers before revaluation.

Some banknotes were stamped to indicate changes of denomination. This is because it would take too long to print new notes. By the time new notes were printed, they would be obsolete that is, they would be of too low a denomination to be useful. Metallic coins were rapid casualties of hyperinflation, as the scrap value of metal enormously exceeded the face value.

Massive amounts of coinage were melted down, usually illicitly, and exported for hard currency. Governments will often try to disguise the true rate of inflation through a variety of techniques. None of these actions address the root causes of inflation and if discovered, they tend to further undermine trust in the currency, causing further increases in inflation. He also reproduced the flyer in The Tombstone Epitaph , on July 30, Frank McLaury angrily printed a response in the Cowboy-friendly Nuggett , calling Hurst "unmanly", "a coward, a vagabond, a rascal, and a malicious liar", and accused Hurst of stealing the mules himself.

Hurst later cautioned Wyatt, Virgil, and Morgan that the Cowboys had threatened their lives. Wyatt did his job well, and from August through November, his name was mentioned nearly every week by The Tombstone Epitaph or the Nugget newspapers.

On October 28, , popular Tombstone town marshal Fred White attempted to break up a group of five late-night, drunken revelers shooting at the moon on Allen Street in Tombstone. When he heard the shooting, he ran to the scene, borrowed a pistol from Fred Dodge, and went to assist White. He saw White attempt to disarm Curly Bill Brocius and the gun discharged, striking White in the groin. Then he grabbed Brocius by the collar and told him to get up. Brocius protested, asking, "What have I done?

Fred Dodge arrived on the scene. In a letter to Stuart Lake many years later, he recalled what he saw. Wyatt's coolness and nerve never showed to better advantage than they did that night. Curly Bill's friends were pot-shooting at him in the dark. The shooting was lively and slugs were hitting the chimney and cabin Wyatt altered his story later on, telling John H.

Flood that he did not see Brocius's pistol on the ground in the dark until afterward. Virgil and Wyatt escorted Brocius to Tucson to stand trial, possibly saving him from a lynching. On December 27, , Wyatt testified that White's shooting was accidental. Brocius expressed regret, saying he had not intended to shoot White. Gunsmith Jacob Gruber testified that Curly Bill's single-action revolver was defective, allowing it to be discharged at half-cock. The judge ruled that the shooting was accidental and released Brocius.

Brocius, however, remained intensely angry about how Wyatt had pistol-whipped him and became an enemy to the Earps. Wyatt only served as deputy sheriff for eastern Pima County for about three months because, in November, Democrat Shibell ran for re-election against Republican challenger Bob Paul.

The region was strongly Republican [64]: Republican Wyatt expected he would continue in the job. Given how fast eastern Pima County was growing, everyone expected that it would be split off into its own county soon with Tombstone as its seat. Southern Pacific was the major landholder, so tax collection was a relatively easy process. The precinct only contained about 10 eligible voters [72] another source says 50 , [65] but the Cowboys gathered nonvoters like the children and Chinese and had them cast ballots.

Not satisfied, they named all the dogs, burros, and poultry and cast ballots in their names for Shibell. The election board met on November 14 and declared Shibell the winner. Earp resigned from the sheriff's office on November 9, , and Shibell immediately appointed Behan as the new deputy sheriff for eastern Pima County.

Behan had previously served as Yavapai County sheriff from to He had been elected to the Arizona Territorial Legislature twice, representing Yavapai Country in the 7th Territorial Legislature in [77]: French ruled in Paul's favor in late January , but Shibell appealed. His lawsuit was finally resolved by April The election commission found that a mysterious "Henry Johnson" was responsible for certifying the ballots. This turned out to be James Johnson, the same James K.

Johnson who had been shooting up Allen Street the night Marshal White was killed. Moreover, he was the same Johnson who testified at Curly Bill's preliminary hearing after he shot Fred White.

None of the witnesses during the election hearing reported on ballots being cast by dogs. Sixty-two were kept from a closer examination. Paul could not replace Behan with Earp because on January 1, , Cochise County was created out of the eastern portion of Pima County. However, Behan had greater political experience and influence in Prescott. After the Gunfight at the O. Corral, when Earp was charged with murder, he testified at the preliminary hearing that he and Behan had made a deal.

Behan received the appointment in February , but did not keep his end of the bargain. He instead chose Harry Woods, a prominent Democrat, as undersheriff. Behan testified at first that he had not made any deal with Earp, although he later admitted he had lied. Behan said he broke his promise to appoint Earp because of an incident that occurred shortly before his appointment. This incident arose after Earp learned that one of his prize horses, stolen more than a year before, was in the possession of Ike Clanton and his brother Billy.

Earp and Holliday rode to the Clanton ranch near Charleston to recover the horse. On the way, they overtook Behan, who was riding in a wagon. Behan was also heading to the ranch to serve an election-hearing subpoena on Ike Clanton.

Earp later testified that when he arrived at the Clanton ranch, Billy Clanton gave up the horse even before being presented with ownership papers. According to Behan's testimony, however, Earp had told the Clantons that Behan was on his way to arrest them for horse theft.

After the incident, which embarrassed both the Clantons and Behan, Behan testified that he did not want to work with Earp and chose Woods instead. Thirty-two-year-old Wyatt Earp and year-old Johnny Behan apparently shared an interest in the same year-old woman, Josephine Sarah Marcus.

She said she first visited Tombstone as part of the Pauline Markham Theatre Troupe on December 1, , for a one-week engagement, [82]: In September , Behan moved to Tombstone. Sadie may have returned to San Francisco and then joined Behan in Tombstone, where she and Behan continued their relationship. Sadie was a well-known nickname for Sarah, and prostitutes commonly changed their first names. When they became a couple in , he knew his wife preferred the name "Josephine" and detested "Sadie", but early in their relationship, he began calling her Sadie.

Sadie Mansfield and Sadie Marcus had very similar names and initials and were both known by their friends as Sadie. Both made a stagecoach journey from San Francisco to Prescott, Arizona Territory; both traveled with a black woman named Julia; both were sexual partners with Behan; both were 19 years old, born in New York City, and had parents from Prussia. In spring , Marcus found Behan in bed with the wife of a friend [40] and kicked him out, [86] although she still used the Behan surname through the end of that summer.

Earp had a common-law relationship with Mattie Blaylock, who was listed as his wife in the June census. She suffered from severe headaches and became addicted to laudanum , a commonly used opiate and painkiller. Tombstone diarist George W. Parsons never mentioned seeing Wyatt and Josephine together and neither did John Clum in his memoirs. While there, Wyatt stayed with prominent businessman Henry N.

Jaffa, who was also president of New Albuquerque's Board of Trade. Like Josephine, Jaffa was Jewish. Otero wrote in his letter, "Holiday said something about Earp becoming 'a damn Jew-boy. Earp did mezuzah when entering the house. Jaffa was also Jewish, and based on the letter, Earp had, while staying in Jaffa's home, honored Jewish tradition by performing the mezuzah upon entering his home.

Earp's anger at Holliday's ethnic slur may indicate that his feelings for Josephine were more serious at the time than is commonly known.

The information in the letter is compelling because at that time in the s, the relationship between Wyatt Earp and Josephine Marcus in Tombstone was not public knowledge. Otero could know these things only if he had a relationship with someone who had personal knowledge of the individuals involved. Marcus went to great lengths to sanitize her own and Wyatt's history. For example, she worked hard to keep both her name and the name of Wyatt's second wife Mattie out of Stuart Lake 's book, Wyatt Earp: Frontier Marshal , and Marcus threatened litigation to keep it that way.

Losing the undersheriff position left Wyatt Earp without a job in Tombstone; however, Wyatt and his brothers were beginning to make some money on their mining claims in the Tombstone area. In January , Oriental Saloon owner Mike Joyce gave Wyatt Earp a one-quarter interest in the faro concession at the Oriental Saloon in exchange for his services as a manager and enforcer.

In June , [95] Wyatt also telegraphed another friend and gambler from Dodge, Luke Short , who was living in Leadville, Colorado , and offered him a job as a faro dealer.

Bat remained until April , when he returned to Dodge City to assist his brother Jim. A rival gambling concession operator hired someone to disrupt Wyatt's business. When Tyler started a fight after losing a bet, Wyatt threw him out of the saloon. Holliday later wounded Oriental owners Milt Joyce and his partner William Parker and was convicted of assault. Henry was well-liked, and a mob of miners quickly gathered, threatening to lynch O'Rourke on the spot.

Tensions between the Earps and both the Clantons and McLaurys increased through The holdup took place near Benson, during which the robbers killed popular driver Eli "Budd" Philpot and passenger Peter Roerig.

They arrested King and Sheriff Johnny Behan escorted him to jail, but somehow King walked in the front door and almost immediately out the back door. During the hearing into the gunfight at the O.

Wyatt testified that he had other motives for his plan, as well; he hoped that arresting the murderers would boost his chances for election as Cochise County sheriff. Wyatt told the court that he had taken the extra step of obtaining a second copy of a telegram for Ike from Wells Fargo assuring that the reward for capturing the killers applied either dead or alive.

According to testimony given by Wyatt and Virgil, both Frank McLaury and Ike Clanton agreed to provide information to assist in capturing Leonard, Head, and Crain, but they never had a chance to fulfill the agreement. All three suspects were killed when attempting other robberies.

In his testimony at the court hearing, Clanton said Wyatt did not want to capture the men, but to kill them. Clanton told the court that Earp wanted to conceal the Earp family's involvement in the Benson stage robbery. He said Wyatt swore him to secrecy, and the next day, Morgan Earp asked him whether he would make the agreement with Wyatt. During his testimony, Clanton told the court, "I was not going to have anything to do with helping to capture—" and then he corrected himself "—kill Bill Leonard, Crane and Harry Head".

Clanton denied having any knowledge of the Wells Fargo telegram confirming the reward money. Meanwhile, tensions between the Earps and the McLaurys increased when Cowboys robbed the passenger stage on the Sandy Bob Line in the Tombstone area on September 8, bound for nearby Bisbee.

The masked robbers shook down the passengers and robbed the strongbox. They were recognized by their voices and language. Stilwell was fired a short while later as a deputy sheriff for Sheriff Behan for county tax "accounting irregularities".

Wyatt and Virgil Earp rode with the sheriff's posse attempting to track the stage robbers. Wyatt discovered an unusual boot heel print in the mud. The posse checked with a shoemaker in Bisbee and found a matching heel that he had just removed from Stilwell's boot.

A further check of a Bisbee corral turned up both Spence and Stilwell, who were arrested by sheriff's deputies Billy Breakenridge and Nagel. Occurring less than two weeks before the O. Corral shootout, this final incident may have been misunderstood by the McLaurys. On Wednesday, October 26, , the tension between the Earps and the Cowboys came to a head.

Ike Clanton, Billy Claiborne, and other Cowboys had been threatening to kill the Earps for several weeks. Wyatt had been deputized by Virgil a few days prior as a temporary assistant marshal, Morgan was a deputy city marshal, and Virgil also summoned Holliday to help.

Around 3 pm, the Earps and Holliday headed towards Fremont Street, where the Cowboys had been reported gathering. They found five Cowboys in a vacant lot adjacent to the O.

Corral's rear entrance on Fremont Street. The lot between the Harwood House and Fly's Boarding House and Photography Studio was narrow—the two parties were initially only about 6 to 10 feet 1. Ike Clanton and Billy Claiborne fled the gunfight. Morgan was clipped by a shot across his back that nicked both shoulder blades and a vertebra. Virgil was shot through the calf, and Holliday was grazed by a bullet. On October 30, as permitted by territorial law, Ike Clanton filed murder charges against the Earps and Holliday.

Justice Wells Spicer convened a preliminary hearing on October 31 to determine if enough evidence existed to go to trial.

In an unusual proceeding, he took written and oral testimony from about 30 witnesses over more than a month. Sheriff Behan, testifying for the prosecution, said the Cowboys had not resisted, but had thrown up their hands and turned out their coats to show they were not armed.

The Earps hired an experienced trial lawyer, Thomas Fitch , as defense counsel. Wyatt testified that he drew his gun only after Billy Clanton and Frank McLaury went for their pistols. He detailed the Earps' previous troubles with the Clantons and McLaurys and explained that they intended to disarm the cowboys.

He said they fired in self defense. After extensive testimony, Justice Spicer ruled on November 30 that there was not enough evidence to indict the men. He said the evidence indicated that the Earps and Holliday acted within the law and that Holliday and Wyatt had been deputized temporarily by Virgil.

The Cowboys in Tombstone looked upon the Earps as robbers and murderers and plotted revenge. On December 28, while walking between saloons on Allen Street in Tombstone, Virgil was ambushed and maimed by a shotgun round that struck his left arm and shoulder. Ike Clanton's hat was found in the back of the building across Allen Street from where the shots were fired.

Dake asking to be appointed deputy U. The Earps also raised some funds from sympathetic business owners in town. On February 2, , Wyatt and Virgil, tired of the criticism leveled against them, submitted their resignations to Dake, who refused to accept them because their accounts had not been settled. Clanton was also acquitted that day of the charges against him in the shooting of Virgil Earp, when the defense brought in seven witnesses who testified that Clanton was in Charleston at the time of the shooting.

The Earps needed more funds to pay for the extra deputies and associated expenses. Contributions received from supportive business owners were not enough. On February 13, Wyatt mortgaged his home to lawyer James G. He was never able to repay the loan and in Howard foreclosed on the house. After attending a theatre show on March 18, Morgan Earp was assassinated by gunmen firing from a dark alley through a door window into a room where he was playing billiards. Morgan was struck in the right side.

The bullet shattered his spine, passed through his left side, and lodged in the thigh of George A. Another round narrowly missed Wyatt. A doctor was summoned and Morgan was moved from the floor to a nearby couch. The assassins escaped in the dark and Morgan died 40 minutes later. Wyatt Earp felt he could not rely on civil justice, and decided to take matters into his own hands. The day after Morgan's assassination, Deputy U.

James was to accompany Morgan's body to the family home in Colton, California , where Morgan's parents and wife waited to bury him. The next morning, Frank Stilwell's body was found alongside the tracks riddled with buckshot and gunshot wounds. The Earp posse briefly returned to Tombstone, where Sheriff Behan tried to stop them. The heavily armed posse brushed him aside. Two days later, near Iron Springs later Mescal or possibly Cottonwood Springs , in the Whetstone Mountains , they were seeking to rendezvous with a messenger for them.

According to reports from both sides, the two sides immediately exchanged gunfire. Except for Wyatt and Texas Jack Vermillion, whose horse was shot, the Earp party withdrew to find protection from the heavy gunfire. Curly Bill fired at Wyatt with a shotgun, but missed. Eighteen months prior, Wyatt had protected Curly Bill against a mob ready to lynch him, and then provided testimony that helped spare Curly Bill from a murder trial for killing Sheriff Fred White.

Now, Wyatt returned Curly Bill's gunfire with his own shotgun and shot Curly Bill in the chest from about 50 feet 15m away. Curly Bill fell into the water by the edge of the spring and died. After emptying his shotgun at Curly Bill, Wyatt fired his revolver, mortally wounding Johnny Barnes in the chest and wounding Milt Hicks in the arm. Vermillion tried to retrieve his rifle wedged in the scabbard under his fallen horse, exposing himself to the Cowboys' gunfire.

Doc Holliday helped him get to cover. According to Lake, Earp told him both sides of his long coat were shot through, and another bullet struck his boot heel. In the letter he relayed Earp's story about how his overcoat was hit on both sides of his body by a charge of buckshot and that his saddle horn was shot off.

The saddle-horn had been splintered, his coat hung in shreds, there were three holes through the legs of his trousers, five holes through the crown of his sombrero, and three through the brim. Earp was finally able to get on his horse and retreated with the rest of the posse.

Some modern researchers have found that most saddlehorns were by this time made of steel, not wood. Earp was never wounded in any of his confrontations, which added to his mystique.

Leaving the Cowboys behind, the Earp party rode north to the Percy Ranch, but were not welcomed by Hugh and Jim Percy, who feared the Cowboys; after a meal and some rest, they left around 3: Gage for the posse.

Hooker fed them and Wyatt told him he wanted to buy new mounts. Hooker was known for his purebred stallions and ran over brood mares that produced horses that became known for their speed, beauty, and temperament. The federal posse led by Wyatt Earp was not found by the local posse, led by Cochise County Sheriff John Behan, although Behan's party trailed the Earps for many miles. In , Wyatt Earp gave an interview to California historian H. Bancroft during which he claimed to have killed "over a dozen stage robbers, murderers, and cattle thieves" in his time as a lawman.

The gunfight in Tombstone lasted only 30 seconds, but it ended up defining Earp for the rest of his life. Wyatt never returned to Tombstone. Marshal Bat Masterson, Wyatt's friend. Masterson went with them to Trinidad, Colorado , where Masterson opened a faro game in a saloon and later became marshal.

The Earps and Texas Jack set up camp on the outskirts of Gunnison, where they remained quietly at first, rarely going into town for supplies. Wyatt and Holliday had a serious disagreement "when Holliday said something about Earp becoming 'a damn Jew-boy. Holliday and Dan Tipton rode on to Pueblo, Colorado, while the rest of the group headed for Gunnison.

Holliday and Wyatt met again in June in Gunnison after Wyatt intervened to keep his friend from being arrested on murder charges they all had pending against them for killing Frank Stillwell in Tucson. Josephine Marcus described the skeletal Holliday as having a continuous cough and standing on "unsteady legs. Sadie, traveling as either Mrs. In July, Wyatt traveled from Colorado to San Francisco, [87] where Josephine was living with her half-sister Rebecca and husband Aaron Wiener, and where his brother Virgil was seeking treatment for his arm.

Josephine, or Sadie as Wyatt liked to call her, was Wyatt's common-law wife until his death 46 years later. Wyatt still owned a house in Tombstone with his common-law wife Mattie Blaylock , but she waited for him in Colton, where his parents and Virgil were living.

She had met a gambler from Arizona and he had asked her to marry him. Wyatt, who did not believe in divorce, refused. She ran away with the gambler anyway, and he later abandoned her in Arizona.

She moved to Pinal City, Arizona , where she resumed life as a prostitute. Mattie struggled with addictions and committed " suicide by opium poisoning " on July 3, During what became known as the Dodge City War , the mayor tried to run Earp's friend Luke Short, part owner of the Long Branch saloon, first out of business and then out of town.

Short appealed to Masterson, who contacted Earp. When he returned, Short's allies marched up Front Street into Short's saloon, where they were sworn in as deputies by constable "Prairie Dog" Dave Marrow. The town council offered a compromise to allow Short to return for 10 days to get his affairs in order, but Earp refused to compromise.

When Short returned, there was no one ready to turn him away. Short's Saloon reopened, and the Dodge City War ended without a shot being fired. In , Wyatt, his wife Sadie, his brothers Warren and James, and James' wife Bessie arrived in Eagle City, Idaho, another new boomtown created as a result of the discovery of gold, silver, and lead in the Coeur d'Alene area it is now a ghost town in Shoshone County.

Earp was named deputy sheriff in the area including newly incorporated Kootenai County, Idaho , which was disputing jurisdiction of Eagle City with Shoshone County. There were a considerable number of disagreements over mining claims and property rights, which Earp had a part in. On March 28, several feet of snow were still on the ground. Bill Buzzard, a miner of dubious reputation, began constructing a building when one of Wyatt's partners, Jack Enright, tried to stop the construction.

Enright claimed the building was on part of his property. Words were exchanged and Buzzard reached for his Winchester. He fired several shots at Enright and a skirmish developed. Allies of both sides quickly took defensive positions between snowbanks and began shooting at one another. Deputy Sheriff Wyatt Earp and his brother James stepped into the middle of the fray and helped peacefully resolve the dispute before anyone was seriously hurt.

Hunt then arrived and ordered the parties to turn over their weapons. Around April , Wyatt Earp was reported to have used his badge to join a band of claim jumpers in Embry Camp, later renamed Chewelah, Washington. About 10 years later, after the Fitzimmons-Sharkey fight, a reporter hunted up Buzzard and extracted a story from him that accused Wyatt of being the brains behind lot-jumping and a real-estate fraud, further tarnishing his reputation.

After the Coeur d'Alene mining venture died out, Earp and Sadie briefly went to El Paso, Texas, before moving in to San Diego , where the railroad was about to arrive and a real estate boom was underway. They stayed for about four years, living most of the time in the Brooklyn Hotel. Owned by Madam Cora, each room was painted a different color, like emerald green, summer yellow, or ruby red, [] and each prostitute was required to dress in matching garments.

Wyatt had a long-standing interest in boxing and horse racing. He won his first race horse, Otto Rex, in a card game and began investing in racehorses.

On July 3, , Mattie Blaylock, who had always considered herself Wyatt's wife, committed suicide in Pinal , Arizona Territory, by taking an overdose of laudanum. The Earps moved back to San Francisco in [27] in part so Sadie could be closer to her half-sister Henrietta's family. Earp developed a reputation as a sportsman and a gambler.

He was forced to sell the lots. He continued to race horses, but by , he could no longer afford to own them. He raced them on behalf of the owner of a horse stable in Santa Rosa that he managed for her. Josephine wrote in I Married Wyatt Earp: The Recollections of Josephine Sarah Marcus , that Wyatt and she were married in by the captain of multimillionaire Lucky Baldwin 's yacht off the California coast.

Raymond Nez wrote that his grandparents witnessed their marriage, [] but no public record of the marriage has been found. Earp's relationship with Josephine Marcus was at times tempestuous. Josephine gambled to excess and Wyatt had affairs. He knew his wife preferred Josephine and detested "Sadie", but early in their relationship, he began calling her by that name. They noted that she received an allowance from her family likely her only living relative, half-sister Rebecca and husband Aaron Wiener and gambled it away, often leaving Wyatt hungry.

In the s, Wyatt gave Sadie signed legal papers and filing fees to a claim for an oil lease in Kern County, California. She gambled away the filing fees and lied to Wyatt about what happened to the lease, which later turned out to be valuable.

Distrustful of her ability to manage her finances, Wyatt made an arrangement with her sister Henrietta Lenhardt. Wyatt put oil leases he owned in Henrietta's name with the agreement that the proceeds would benefit Sadie after his death. In February , the oil well was completed and producing barrels a day.

Henrietta's three children refused to keep the agreement after their mother's death and kept the royalties to themselves. Sadie later developed a reputation as a shrew who made life difficult for Earp. Wyatt often went on long walks to get away from her. He was furious about her gambling habit, during which she lost considerable sums of money. Each may have engaged in extramarital affairs. On December 2, , Earp was a last-minute choice as referee for a boxing match that the promoters billed as the heavyweight championship of the world.

Earp had refereed 30 or so matches in earlier days, though not under the Marquess of Queensberry Rules , but under the older and more liberal London Prize Ring Rules. Fitzsimmons was favored to win, and the public and even civic officials placed bets on the outcome. Fitzsimmons dominated Sharkey throughout the fight, and in the eighth round, he hit Sharkey with his famed "solar plexus punch", an uppercut under the heart that could render a man temporarily helpless.

Fitzsimmons' next punch apparently caught Sharkey below the belt and Sharkey dropped, clutched his groin, and rolled on the canvas, screaming foul. Earp awarded the fight to Sharkey, whom attendants carried out as "limp as a rag". Fitzsimmons went to court to overturn Earp's decision.

Lewis, "who knew the 'bad men' in Arizona. He said that the Earps in Tombstone were "stage robbers" who "stood up stages and plundered express companies for a livelihood Warren Earp, who was a stage-company guard, meekly put his hands over his head Virgil, as marshal, would enlist Wyatt, Warren and Julian [ sic ], together with Curly Bill, their cousin, and hunt the hold-ups.

Stories about the fight and Earp's contested decision were distributed nationwide to a public that until that time knew little of Wyatt Earp. On December 17, Judge Sanderson finally ruled that prize fighting was illegal in San Francisco and the courts would not determine who the winner was.

Sharkey retained the purse, but the decision provided no vindication for Earp. Afterward, his name was known from coast to coast in the worst possible way. He only returned when he caught a boat to Alaska.

Eight years later, Dr. Brookes Lee was arrested in Portland, Oregon. He had been accused of treating Sharkey to make it appear that he had been fouled by Fitzsimmons. Lee admitted it was true. Well, that is something I do not care to reveal, but I will assert that it was done—that is enough. There is no doubt that Fitzsimmons was entitled to the decision and did not foul Sharkey.

While in Yuma, Wyatt heard of the gold rush in the Alaska Yukon. Earp was reported to have secured the backing of a syndicate of sporting men to open a gambling house there. Sadie got pregnant too, and she thought she could persuade Earp from heading to Alaska.

He was in agreement, but Sadie, who was 37, miscarried soon after. Wyatt and Josephine spent only a month in Dawson,. When they returned north, Wyatt was offered a job as the marshal in Wrangell, Alaska , but he served for only 10 days. Sadie learned she was pregnant again, and they returned to San Francisco on October 11 aboard the steamship City of Seattle. By the time they reached Rampart on the Yukon River, freeze-up had set in.

In , they got as far as Rampart before the Yukon River froze in place for the winter. Rampart was a friendly place, but far from the real action. They left with the spring thaw and headed for St. Wyatt managed a small store during the spring of , selling beer and cigars for the Alaska Commercial Company.

Michael as "chickenfeed" and persuaded him to relocate to Nome. At the time of the Earps' arrival, Nome was two blocks wide and five miles long. The best accommodations Wyatt and Sadie could find was a wooden shack a few minutes from the main street, only slightly better than a tent.

The river was an open sewer. Typhoid , dysentery and pneumonia were common. Hoxie built the Dexter Saloon in Nome, the city's first two-story wooden building and its largest and most luxurious saloon.

The second floor had 12 "clubrooms" decorated with fine mirrors, thick carpets, draperies, and sideboards. It was used for a variety of purposes because it was so large: The Dexter drew anyone famous who visited Nome.

Wyatt rubbed elbows with future novelist Rex Beach, writer Jack London , playwright Wilson Mizner , and boxing promoter Tex Rickard , [40] with whom Earp developed a long-lasting relationship. Both the Dexter and the Northern Saloon competed for business with more than 60 other saloons in town serving an estimated 20, residents. He was arrested twice in Nome for minor offenses, including being drunk and disorderly, although he was not tried.

Wyatt learned about his death soon after, and although some modern researchers believe he went to Arizona to avenge his brother's death, the distance and time required to make the trip made it unlikely, and no contemporary evidence has been found to support that theory.

The ship was infested with lice and was struck by a storm on the Bering Sea, making for a difficult trip. It took nine days to reach Seattle, Washington. In , archivists at the Alaska State Library digitized a collection of documents relating to Earp's arrival and stay in Alaska.

Earp arrived in Seattle with a plan to open a saloon and gambling room. On November 25, , the Seattle Star described him as "a man of great reputation among the toughs and criminals, inasmuch as he formerly walked the streets of a rough frontier mining town with big pistols stuck in his belt, spurs on his boots, and a devil-may-care expression upon his official face". The Seattle Daily Times was less full of praise, announcing in a very small article that he had a reputation in Arizona as a "bad man", which in that era was synonymous with "villain" and "desperado.

He faced considerable opposition to his plan from John Considine , who controlled all three gaming operations in town. Although gambling was illegal, Considine had worked out an agreement with Police Chief C.

Earp partnered with an established local gambler named Thomas Urguhart, and they opened the Union Club saloon and gambling operation in Seattle's Pioneer Square. The Seattle Star noted two weeks later that Earp's saloon was earning a large following. Considine unsuccessfully tried to intimidate Earp, but his saloon continued to prosper. After the city failed to act, on March 23, , the Washington state attorney general filed charges against several gamblers, including Earp and his partner.

The club's furnishings were confiscated and burned. Newspapers in Seattle and San Francisco falsely reported on Wyatt's wealth which prompted a stampede to Nome to seek similar riches. Nome was advertised as an "exotic summer destination" and four ships a day left Seattle with passengers infected with "gold fever. Within weeks Nome grew to a city of over 20, inhabitants. In , the major business there "was not mining, but gambling and saloon trade. There were saloons and gambling houses, with an occasional restaurant.

Prize fighting became the sport of choice and Wyatt's income soared with side bets. He often refereed bouts himself at The Dexter. Sadie got pregnant again, and she and Wyatt decided to leave Alaska. They sold their interest in the Dexter to their partner, Charlie Hoxie. Sadie miscarried and lost the baby. Three months later, in February , they arrived in Tonopah, Nevada , known as the "Queen of the Silver Camps", where silver and gold had been discovered in and a boom was under way.

After Tonopah's gold strike waned, they moved in to Goldfield, Nevada , where his brother Virgil and his wife were living. He hired Wyatt as a pit boss. In , he discovered several deposits of gold and copper near the Sonoran Desert town of Vidal, California , on the Colorado River and filed more than mining claims [86] near the Whipple Mountains. This led to Wyatt's final armed confrontation.

Lewis to head up a posse to protect surveyors of the American Trona Company who were attempting to wrest control of mining claims for vast deposits of potash on the edge of Searles Lake held in receivership by the foreclosed California Trona Company. Wyatt and the group he guarded were regarded as claim jumpers and were confronted by armed representatives of the other company. King wrote, "it was the nerviest thing he had ever seen".

With guns pulled, Wyatt came out of his tent with a Winchester rifle , firing a round at the feet of Federal Receiver Stafford W. Earp's actions did not resolve the dispute, which eventually escalated into the "Potash Wars" of the Mojave Desert. Peterson, a realty broker, in a fake faro game. The Earps bought a small cottage in Vidal, the only home they ever owned.

Beginning in and until Wyatt's health began to fail in , Wyatt and Sadie Earp summered in Los Angeles and spent the rest of the year in the desert working their claims. In about , Charles Welsh, a retired railroad engineer and friend that Earp had known since Dodge City, frequently invited the Earps to visit his family in San Bernardino.

When the Welsh family moved to Los Angeles, the Earps accepted an invitation to stay with them for a while in their top-floor apartment until the Earps found a place to rent.

She and her sister Alma were concerned about the care Sadie gave Wyatt. Though he was at times very ill, she still did not cook for him. Spolidora, her sisters, and her mother brought in meals.

While living in Los Angeles, Earp became an unpaid film consultant for several silent cowboy movies. In his autobiography, Dwan recalled, "As was the custom in those days, he [Earp] was invited to join the party and mingle with our background action.

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